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Structural analysis of automobile steering system

Structural analysis of automobile steering system

  • Categories:Industry news
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  • Time of issue:2022-06-09 12:42
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(Summary description)

Structural analysis of automobile steering system

(Summary description)

  • Categories:Industry news
  • Author:
  • Origin:
  • Time of issue:2022-06-09 12:42
  • Views:
Information

We usually drive. We can control the steering wheel to drive in the direction we want. We seldom explore how the steering wheel turns the wheels. We often hear the terms "hydraulic power steering", "electric power steering" and "active steering". How do they work? What's the difference?

● what is power steering?

The so-called power steering means that the driver can complete the steering with less force with the help of external forces. At first, it was applied to some large vehicles, and the steering can be completed easily without so much effort. Now it has been widely used in various models, making driving easier and more agile, and improving driving safety to a certain extent. According to the source of power, power steering can be divided into hydraulic power and electric power.

● mechanical hydraulic power steering

Mechanical hydraulic power system mainly includes gear rack steering structure and hydraulic system (hydraulic booster pump, hydraulic cylinder, piston, etc.). The working principle is that the hydraulic pump (driven by the engine belt) provides oil pressure to push the piston, and then generates auxiliary force to push the steering rod and assist the wheel steering.

How does it work? First, the mechanical valve body (which can rotate with the steering column) on the steering gear. When the steering wheel does not rotate, the valve body remains in place, and the oil pressure on both sides of the piston is the same, in a balanced state. When the steering wheel rotates, the steering control valve will be opened or closed accordingly. The oil on one side will directly return to the oil storage tank without passing through the hydraulic cylinder, and the oil on the other side will continue to be injected into the hydraulic cylinder. In this way, the differential pressure will be generated on both sides of the piston and pushed, and then an auxiliary force will be generated to push the steering rod, making steering easier.

In the hydraulic steering system, such as the violent beating of the wheel and the involuntary steering of the tire when encountering potholes on the road, the vibration can be well buffered and absorbed by the action of the hydraulic pressure on the piston, so that the vibration transmitted to the steering wheel can be greatly reduced. Mechanical hydraulic power assisted technology is mature, stable, reliable and widely used. However, the structure is complex and the maintenance cost is high. Moreover, the power of a simple mechanical hydraulic power assist system cannot be adjusted, so it is difficult to take into account the different requirements for pointing accuracy when driving at low speed and high speed.

● electronic hydraulic power steering

The structure and principle of electronic hydraulic power assistance are roughly the same as that of mechanical hydraulic power assistance. The biggest difference is that the driving mode of oil pump is different. The hydraulic pump with mechanical hydraulic power is directly driven by the engine belt, while the electronic hydraulic power adopts the electronic pump driven by electricity.

The electronic pump assisted by electronic hydraulic pressure does not consume the power of the engine itself, and the electronic pump is controlled by the electronic system. When steering is not required, the electronic pump is turned off, further reducing energy consumption. The electronic control unit of the electro-hydraulic power steering system can change the strength of the steering power by changing the flow of the electronic pump by using the information processing of the speed sensor, steering angle sensor and other sensors.

● electric power steering

Electric power is mainly composed of sensors, control units and power motors. Without the hydraulic pump, hydraulic pipeline, steering column valve body and other structures of the hydraulic power system, the structure is very simple.

The main working principle is that when the steering wheel rotates, the torque sensor at the steering column position transmits the rotation signal to the controller, and the controller provides the appropriate voltage to the motor through calculation and correction to drive the motor to rotate. The torque output by the motor is amplified by the reduction mechanism and then pushes the steering column or steering rod to provide steering power. The electric power steering system can change the amount of power according to the speed, making the steering wheel lighter at low speed and more stable at high speed.

There are two ways to realize electric power steering. One is to apply power to the steering column, which is to connect the power motor directly to the steering column after deceleration and torque increase. The auxiliary torque output by the motor is directly applied to the steering column, which is equivalent to the motor directly helping us turn the steering wheel. The other is to apply power to the steering rod, which is to install the power motor on the steering rod and directly use the power motor to push the rod to turn the wheels. The latter is more compact and easy to arrange, and is currently widely used.

● what is variable power steering with speed?

Variable power steering with speed means that the size of steering power can change with the change of vehicle speed. What are the benefits of this? When driving at low speed, such as parking and warehousing, it is really convenient to turn the steering wheel lightly, but if the steering wheel turns too lightly at high speed, it is a hazard, because it is not conducive to the stability of high-speed driving.

Variable power steering with speed can do this. When the car is running at low speed, it can provide large power to ensure that the steering wheel rotates lightly and flexibly; When the speed is high, it will provide less assistance to enhance the safety and stability of driving.

● what is the variable steering ratio steering system (active steering system)?

The so-called variable steering ratio can be simply understood as the ratio of the steering wheel rotation angle to the corresponding wheel rotation angle. In the variable speed power steering system mentioned above, what can be changed is only the power assistance, that is, the power assistance when the steering wheel rotates, but the steering ratio cannot be changed, while the steering system with variable steering ratio can only change the power assistance of steering. In different cases, the wheel rotation angle corresponding to the steering wheel angle can also be changed.

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